THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES OF PRACTICE

ROLE OF MEDICINE IN INTERDISCIPLINARY CARE

Based on the traditional reliance by patients of Physicians as the ultimate health care provider responsible for patient care, the roles of Medicine in interdisciplinary health care would include:

> To provide leadership in the delivery of interdisciplinary health care;
> To share knowledge contributed by the numerous specialties and subspecialties of medicine on
the theory and practice of health maintenance, disease, diagnosis and treatment;
> To establish specific goals and objectives for preventive and curative care;
> To analyze and interpret the results of the evaluations of the health status of individuals and
populations;
> To gather scientific data on the evolution of health status and diseases in populations; and
> To provide guidance in the analysis and studies of quality assessment, outcomes research,
evaluation of quality of life, cost effectiveness and cost benefits of specific interventions.

ROLE OF DENTISTRY IN INTERDISCIPLINARY HEALTH CARE

Numerous diseases and disorders manifest in the oro-facial region, either prior to the presence of systemic symptoms, during their presence, or after the systemic symptoms have subsided. Moreover, it has been shown that chronic oral infections play important predisposing roles in the development of such conditions as coronary and valvular heart disease, diabetes, and low birth-weight pregnancy. Significant stress related symptoms and psychosocial reactions may occur too because of chronic oro-facial pain, deformities, and dysfunction. Timely and appropriate dental interventions have improved medical outcomes. Therefore, the role of Dentistry in interdisciplinary care would include:

> Providing leadership in establishing the philosophy of interdisciplinary health care, with an
emphasis on prevention;
> Directing care of patients for diagnosis and treatment of oro-facial disease, disorders and
dysfunction;
> Collaborating with other health care professionals in multidisciplinary planning, decision-making
and goal/outcomes setting;
> Communicating the knowledge and skills of dentistry and its eight specialties to all health care
professionals;
> Identifying competent groups in dentistry able to contribute to the performance and analysis of
quality research, outcomes assessment, quality of life issues, and cost benefit relationships of
specific treatments;
> Responding to oro-facial diagnosis and/or treatment requests required prior to oncologic therapy,
surgery, and other disease treatments where oro-facial pathology can affect corrective treatment
outcomes;
> Referring patients for consultation to other disciplines based on dental history and physical
examination findings of possible systemic disease, disorder, or dysfunction, and;
> Providing patient and health care professional education on oro-facial care requirements for the
prevention of disease and dysfunction.

ROLE OF OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE IN INTERDISCIPLINARY HEALTH CARE

Osteopathic Medicine evolved from traditional medicine in the 1870s because of dissatisfaction of medical treatments of the day. The founder of Osteopathic Medicine, Dr. Still, embraced the teachings of Hippocrates with its emphasis of the Holistic approach to the patient in which all parts of the body are interrelated. Dr. Still emphasized the manual treatment of the musculoskeletal system as a means of treating all parts of the body. The roles of Osteopathic Medicine in interdisciplinary health care would include:

> Evaluation of the status of the body, mind and spirit of patients and treating or referring
appropriately;
> Providing leadership in rehabilitation of the musculoskeletal system and referring appropriately;
> Coordinating care for patients with multiple systems complaints;
> Practicing preventive medicine through treatment and referral; and
> Bridging the gap between traditional and alternative medicine.